1. What is pep 8?
2. What is PYTHONPATH?
It is an environment variable which is used when a module is imported. Whenever a module is imported, PYTHONPATH is also looked up to check for the presence of the imported modules in various directories. The interpreter uses it to determine which module to load.
3. What are python modules? Name some commonly used built-in modules in Python?
Python modules are files containing Python code. This code can either be functions classes or variables. A Python module is a .py file containing executable code.
Some of the commonly used built-in modules are:
- data time
4. Is indentation required in python?
Indentation is necessary for Python. It specifies a block of code. All code within loops, classes, functions, etc is specified within an indented block. It is usually done using four space characters. If your code is not indented necessarily, it will not execute accurately and will throw errors as well.
5. What is pickling and unpickling?
Pickle module accepts any Python object and converts it into a string representation and dumps it into a file by using dump function, this process is called pickling. While the process of retrieving original Python objects from the stored string representation is called unpickling.
6. What are the generators in python?
Functions that return an iterable set of items are called generators.
7. How will you capitalize the first letter of string?
In Python, the
capitalize() method capitalizes the first letter of a string. If the string already consists of a capital letter at the beginning, then, it returns the original string.
8. Does Python have OOps concepts?
Python is an object-oriented programming language. This means that any program can be solved in python by creating an object model. However, Python can be treated as a procedural as well as structural language.
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9. What are Python libraries? Name a few of them.
Python libraries are a collection of Python packages. Some of the majorly used python libraries are – Numpy, Pandas, Matplotlib, Scikit-learn and many more.
10. What is Polymorphism in Python?
Polymorphism means the ability to take multiple forms. So, for instance, if the parent class has a method named ABC then the child class also can have a method with the same name ABC having its own parameters and variables. Python allows polymorphism.
11. Define encapsulation in Python?
Encapsulation means binding the code and the data together. A Python class in an example of encapsulation.
12. List out the inheritance styles in Django.
In Django, there are three possible inheritance styles:
- Abstract Base Classes: This style is used when you only want parent’s class to hold information that you don’t want to type out for each child model.
- Multi-table Inheritance: This style is used If you are sub-classing an existing model and need each model to have its own database table.
- Proxy models: You can use this model, If you only want to modify the Python level behavior of the model, without changing the model’s fields.
13. How do you make 3D plots/visualizations using NumPy/SciPy?
Like 2D plotting, 3D graphics is beyond the scope of NumPy and SciPy, but just as in the 2D case, packages exist that integrate with NumPy. Matplotlib provides basic 3D plotting in the mplot3d subpackage, whereas Mayavi provides a wide range of high-quality 3D visualization features, utilizing the powerful VTK engine.
14. What is pickling and unpickling in Python?
The Python pickle is defined as a module which accepts any Python object and converts it into a string representation. It dumps the Python object into a file using the dump function; this process is called Pickling.
The process of retrieving the original Python objects from the stored string representation is called as Unpickling.
15. What is the usage of help() and dir() function in Python?
Help() and dir() both functions are accessible from the Python interpreter and used for viewing a consolidated dump of built-in functions.
Help() function: The help() function is used to display the documentation string and also facilitates us to see the help related to modules, keywords, and attributes.
Dir() function: The dir() function is used to display the defined symbols.
16. How Python does Compile-time and Run-time code checking?
In Python, some amount of coding is done at compile time, but most of the checking such as type, name, etc. are postponed until code execution. Consequently, if the Python code references a user-defined function that does not exist, the code will compile successfully. The Python code will fail only with an exception when the code execution path does not exist.